Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and were used throughout the Roman Empire. They are still used in some contexts today, such as for numbering sections and chapters in books, for indicating the year of production of a film or TV show, and for numbering the Super Bowls.

The basic Roman numerals are:

\(\text{V} = 5 \)

\(\text{I} = 1 \)

\(\text{X} = 10 \)

\(\text{L} = 50 \)

\(\text{C} = 100 \)

\(\text{D} = 500 \)

\(\text{M} = 1000 \)

Roman numerals are formed by combining these letters in various ways. The basic rules are:

⠐ When a smaller number appears before a larger number, it is subtracted from the larger number.

For example, \( \text{IV} is 4 (5 - 1) \), \( \text{XL} 40 (50 - 10) \), and \( \text{CM} \) is \( \text{900 (1000 - 100)} \).

⠐ When a smaller number appears after a larger number, it is added to the larger number.

For example, \( \text{VI is 6 (5 + 1)} \), \( \text{LX 60 (50 + 10)} \), and \( \text{MC} \) is \( \text{1100 (1000 + 100)} \).

Here are the Roman numerals from 1 to 50 in table form:

Arabic | Roman | Arabic | Roman | Arabic | Roman |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | I | 18 | XVIII | 35 | XXXV |

2 | II | 19 | XIX | 40 | XL |

3 | III | 20 | XX | 45 | XLV |

4 | IV | 21 | XXI | 50 | L |

5 | V | 22 | XXII | ||

6 | VI | 23 | XXIII | ||

7 | VII | 24 | XXIV | ||

8 | VIII | 25 | XXV | ||

9 | IX | 26 | XXVI | ||

10 | X | 27 | XXVII | ||

11 | XI | 28 | XXVIII | ||

12 | XII | 29 | XXIX | ||

13 | XIII | 30 | XXX | ||

14 | XIV | 31 | XXXI | ||

15 | XV | 32 | XXXII | ||

16 | XVI | 33 | XXXIII | ||

17 | XVII | 34 | XXXIV |

Examples of writing larger numbers in Roman numerals:

Arabic numeral | Roman | Arabic | Roman |
---|---|---|---|

100 | C | 1000 | M |

500 | D | 2000 | MM |

1000 | M | 3000 | MMM |

5000 | (V) | 10000 | (X) |

100000 | (C) | 50000 | (L) |

500000 | (D) | 1000000 | (M) |